Background: ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder associated with wide-ranging economic implications across the lifespan.
An understanding of incremental societal costs can be used to determine which treatments provide optimal outcomes within the limited
budgets of global healthcare systems.
Objectives: This report will systematically review the recent existing literature on the incremental economic cost of ADHD, from a
societal perspective. Costs will be categorized by demographic, geographical and different cost-type groups. These findings will be used
to estimate ADHD-related costs in Canada.
Method: A literature of studies published from 2005 onwards was conducted. This identified 3,554 relevant items. All costs were updated and converted to 2017 US dollars. These costs were used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs for the Canadian economy.
Results: Following review, 21 articles met the criteria. Studies were divided according to assessment of direct versus indirect costs, and
further subdivided into the components of these costs. The average annual per-person direct medical costs for children and adolescents
(in 2017 USD) ranged from $560 to $2,672 in European studies and from $744 to $3,046 in the US studies included. The medical costs
for adults ranged from $2,153 to $2,843 in Europe and from $2303 to $4156 in the US. In our base case analysis, annual national
ADHD-related healthcare utilization costs in Canada ranged between $1.7 to $9.2 billion Canadian dollars for children and adolescents,
and between $4.5 to $22.9 billion for adults.